Add a new disk to a volume group for use with lvm

Today I built a new server for us to start testing out splunk. When I built it I used LVM. I also agreed to the default layout using split partitions on the Debian 6 install. So I ended up with a partition for / /var and /home and /tmp. I always like splitting partitions up like this, and I ALWAYS use LVM. Once the new server was booted up and ready for me to begin the splunk install I did so using their deb package. That put everything for splunk into /opt which did not have its own partition, and as a result I needed to add a new disk, and create a partition that could be mounted to /opt. Since I used LVM this became a trivial task. I will show you the steps to take if you need to do what I did.

First we need to stop splunk and move it out of /opt for a moment.
/opt/splunk/bin/splunk stop
Once you see this info you should be ready to move splunk:

Stopping splunkweb…
Stopping splunkd…
Shutting down. Please wait, as this may take a few minutes.
Stopping splunk helpers…


Next we will move the splunk install to /tmp while we do this disk stuff. If you do not move it you will notice once the new opt is created that splunk is gone (sort of, its really just hidden), so its best to just move it for now.
mv /opt/splunk /tmp
This will move the splunk install to /tmp.
Next, I am going to assume your new disk is already accessible to the system. If its not then make it that way, so we can partition it with fdisk
fdisk /dev/sdb
sdb Was the disk I added to my system. Here I am going to create a new primary partition and set its type to 8e which is Linux LVM. I want to use the whole disk but you may want to only allocate a small amount of it.. Once you have written the changes and fdisk is done its time to begin the LVM steps.
The first step is to create a disk using pvcreate
pvcreate /dev/sdb1
You should get a message like this:

Physical volume “/dev/sdb1” successfully created

If so we can move on to the next step. In my setup I want to add this new disk to the existing volume group which is named splunk. To do that I will use vgextend
vgextend splunk /dev/sdb1
If the command was successful you should be greeted with the following message:

Volume group “splunk” successfully extended

You can verify this using vgdisplay
vgdisplay splunk
You should see something similar showing the new Free PE or the Total PE as being larger. In my case the Total increased by 10G, and the Free shows I now have 10G free.

— Volume group —
VG Name splunk
System ID
Format lvm2
Metadata Areas 2
Metadata Sequence No 8
VG Access read/write
VG Status resizable
Cur LV 6
Open LV 6
Max PV 0
Cur PV 2
Act PV 2
VG Size 29.75 GiB
PE Size 4.00 MiB
Total PE 7617
Alloc PE / Size 5058 / 19.76 GiB
Free PE / Size 2559 / 10.00 GiB
VG UUID DtBgbf-pDPY-JLFo-cjv2-ydUC-nyiH-lzqzys

Now I can create a new logical volume. I am only going to use 8 of the 10G I added, and name it “opt” since that will be its mount point:
lvcreate -L 8G -nopt splunk
If that command was successful you will see a message like mine:

Logical volume “opt” created

You can look at the info about the new volume using lvdisplay
Here is the opt section of my output

— Logical volume —
LV Name /dev/splunk/opt
VG Name splunk
LV UUID 5fAiFp-fpmd-dlUa-mgHl-nNcy-kX9G-RLHDaC
LV Write Access read/write
LV Status available
# open 0
LV Size 8.00 GiB
Current LE 2048
Segments 1
Allocation inherit
Read ahead sectors auto
– currently set to 256
Block device 254:6

Now all thats left is adding a filesystem to this volume and mounting it. I am using ext3, so I will use the following command:
mke2fs -j /dev/mapper/splunk-opt
After the normal output from mke2fs I need to amend my fstab to auto mount my new filesystem for me on boot.
$EDITOR /etc/fstab
I will add the following to that file:

/dev/mapper/splunk-opt /opt ext3 defaults 0 2

Save this file. Now mount the new file system. You should also move anything else that is currently in /opt to /tmp while you do this or it will also appear to be gone.. To mount the new file system simply:
mount -a
This will mount the new logical volume to /opt for you. Verify that with df or mount. Once its verified that it is in fact mounted you can safely move all your data back to /opt
mv /tmp/splunk /opt
Now you can start splunk back up
/opt/splunk/bin/splunk start
All done.

Monitor a directory or file for changes on Linux using inotify

Many times you may need to watch or monitor a file or directory for changes. When you look around for how to do this you will see MANY people suggesting that you use lsof and that does work very well. Another solution is the use of incron. This solution works far better for the cases where I have needed to know more of what is going on with a file or directory.

Installing incron is simple. On Debian and Ubuntu a simple

apt-get install incron

will get it done. Once it is installed you can add your users who will be allowed to use incron to the /etc/incron/incron.allow file. Thats it your user should now be able to use incrontab -e. For my examples I will be using root, and all the scripts I make will be for root only.

Next its time to talk a little about incron. It will work sort of the same as a regular crontab except that it is event driven and not time scheduled, so the syntax of the file will be a bit different. It is in the format:

<path> <mask> <command>

Where <path> is an absolute path on the file system that will be monitored. <mask> is an event symbol. For a full list of event symbols see man 5 incrontab. <command> is the command that will run when the event in the mask section happens. For this example I am going to use the IN_ALL_EVENTS mask, and show you a simple shell script you can use to just log some basic info about whats going on in our watched directory.

Lets make our shell script. Using your favorite text editor create the file /usr/local/sbin/ In that file add the following:

datetime=`date --rfc-3339=ns`
echo "${datetime} Change made in path: " ${path} >> ${logfile}
echo "${datetime} Change made to file: " ${file} >> ${logfile}
echo "${datetime} Change made due to event: " ${event} >> ${logfile}
echo "${datetime} End" >> ${logfile}

Save this file and chmod 700 the file. Next still as root type:

incrontab -e

The first thing we add is the path, in my case I want to monitor /tmp/watch_me This is just a directory in /tmp that I have created for the purpose of this demo. Next I will add the IN_ALL_EVENTS mask, and finally the command /usr/local/sbin/ and then some args to call the script with. My completed incrontab entry looks as follows:

/tmp/watch_me IN_ALL_EVENTS /usr/local/sbin/ $@ $# $%

The symbols added after the command are for the path,event related file name, and finally the event flag that triggered the command to run. Lets save this entry and go create some files and see what happens.

First I will create a file:
touch /tmp/watch_me/testfile1
Now lets take a look at the log:
cat /var/log/inotify_backup_changes_test.log
You should now see:

2011-02-25 10:05:18.450733000-06:00 Change made in path: /tmp/watch_me
2011-02-25 10:05:18.450733000-06:00 Change made to file: testfile1
2011-02-25 10:05:18.450733000-06:00 Change made due to event: IN_ATTRIB
2011-02-25 10:05:18.450733000-06:00 End
2011-02-25 10:05:18.454378794-06:00 Change made in path: /tmp/watch_me
2011-02-25 10:05:18.454378794-06:00 Change made to file: testfile1
2011-02-25 10:05:18.454378794-06:00 Change made due to event: IN_OPEN
2011-02-25 10:05:18.454378794-06:00 End
2011-02-25 10:05:18.456283635-06:00 Change made in path: /tmp/watch_me
2011-02-25 10:05:18.456283635-06:00 Change made to file: testfile1
2011-02-25 10:05:18.456283635-06:00 Change made due to event: IN_CREATE
2011-02-25 10:05:18.456283635-06:00 End
2011-02-25 10:05:18.457849952-06:00 Change made in path: /tmp/watch_me
2011-02-25 10:05:18.457849952-06:00 Change made to file: testfile1
2011-02-25 10:05:18.457849952-06:00 Change made due to event: IN_CLOSE_WRITE
2011-02-25 10:05:18.457849952-06:00 End

As you can see from this log we know when the file is opened for writing to make it, and then we know as soon as its been closed. This can be handy for many things, Ill let your imagination run wild on what you can do with this. If you have any questions or comments please feel free to ask and I will do my best to answer them.

hylafax+debian or Ubuntu = No font metric information found

We were recently going through a server migration. Moving from FreeBSD to Ubuntu Linux. One of the apps required to be moved was hylafax. On Debian and Ubuntu there is a hylafax-client package that provides sendfax which is really what we needed. I installed the package and we tested our app but all we got was failure.. We were greeted with the following:

textfmt: No font metric information found for “Courier-Bold”.
Usage: textfmt [-1] [-2] [-B] [-c] [-D] [-f fontname] [-F fontdir(s)] [-m N] [-o #] [-p #] [-r] [-U] [-Ml=#,r=#,t=#,b=#] [-V #] files… >
Default options: -f Courier -1 -p 11bp -o 0
Error converting document; command was “textfmt -B -f Courier-Bold -Ml=0.4in -p 11 -s default >’/tmp//sndfaxUSNM632′ <'/etc/'"

It took a a little bit of poking and prodding to figure this one out but to fix it I had to edit the following file:


In this file there is a setting for the FontMap. I appended /var/lib/defoma/gs.d/dirs/fonts. You will also need the gsfonts package but that is a listed as a dependency so you should already have it installed.

Building Fluxbox GIT on Ubuntu 10 and adding it to GDM

Many of you may recall from the past that this site used to be ALL about FluxBox my focus now is more on general Linux usage. I do however still use Fluxbox. Something I thought I would talk about is how to add Fluxbox to GDM and what it takes to build Fluxbox GIT on Ubuntu. This process should also work on Debian as well.

The first thing you will need to do is install some dependencies. The best way to do that is using the following commands:
apt-get install build-essential
Next you need to install some stuff specific to Fluxbox, the easy way to do that is like this:
apt-get build-dep fluxbox
Next you need to either grab a source tarball of git, or install git using the following command:
apt-get install git

You should now have everything you need to build the latest version of Fluxbox on your machine. Lets pull the code and build it. As a normal user and with out using sudo:
git clone git:// && cd fluxbox && ./
Once this completes successfully it will be time to configure the build options. Since you may be doing this just to test out the latest version and may still want to have the primary version installed via apt-get Im going to suggest configuring with the following options:
./configure --prefix=/usr/local && make && sudo make install
This will place the files that fluxbox git version installs into the /usr/local directory. Now fluxbox is installed and all you need to do is manually create a fluxbox.desktop file so that GDM will know about.

To make the fluxbox.desktop all you need to do is open your favorite text editor and create a file that looks like this:

[Desktop Entry]
Comment=Highly configurable low resource X11 Window Manager

Next save this file in /usr/share/xsessions/ and name it fluxbox-git.desktop

You may need to restart X for the Fluxbox-git entry to show up for you to select, but thats it!! You should now have Ubuntu with Fluxbox Git installed. Enjoy!!

Guru Plug Server Plus — My First Look

So my boss Robert got a Guru Plug Server Plus, and to my great surprise and joy he sent it home with me to play with. Getting connected to it was simple, once it was plugged in it showed up in my wireless access point list on windows.
Pogoplug Multimedia Sharing Device

Once connected to the access point I got my network info and tried to ssh to the gateway. I was able to log in as root with a clever default root password. I was greeted with a familiar sight. guruplug-first-boot
Debian GNU/Linux 5.0 I connected the device to the internet and tried to apt-get update but found that didnt work. In the /etc/apt/sources.list file there was an entry for a private internal mirror. I had to comment that out and ran dpkg –configure -a since the system suggested it. Once I did that apt-get update worked and so I did an apt-get upgrade Upgraded everything that needed it. Next I installed less, and ntp. I went through the list of pre installed packages, it was pretty long. Some of the packages that stood out were Lighttpd, PERL, PHP5, Python 2.5, MySQL server and client, exim4, udhcpd, and samba 3.2.5. So for dirt you get a pretty powerful cheap ready to rock LAMP stack and File server and Wireless AP. Not so shabby. This puppy supports booting using all kinds of methods. If you are connected to it though the JTAG you will have the option to keep the system from booting. You will be given a prompt:
Hit any key to stop autoboot: 0
Marvell>> help

This will return a nice long list of options. You can choose between USB, TFTP, NFS, and many others. Im looking forward to the next couple of days of playing. I want to try out quagga and maybe asterisk. Check back soon for an update of what I do.